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❶A representative style of art that was developed in the s in Germany by artists including Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz.

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An etching needle, a fine-pointed tool, is used to draw on a metal plate that has been coated with a thin layer of waxy ground, making an easy surface to draw though. After removing the coating, the plate is inked, filling only the incised lines. Damp paper is placed on the plate and run through a press, forcing the paper into the incised lines to pick up the ink.

The War Der Krieg. Stairway of the Treasurer's Residence: Students at Work from the Hampton Album. A facial aspect indicating an emotion; also, the means by which an artist communicates ideas and emotions. Untitled boy with hand to head. May 6, Sol LeWitt. Encompasses varying stylistic approaches that emphasize intense personal expression. Renouncing the stiff bourgeois social values that prevailed at the turn of the 20th century, and rejecting the traditions of the state-sponsored art academies, Expressionist artists turned to boldly simplified or distorted forms and exaggerated, sometimes clashing colors.

As Expressionism evolved from the beginning of the 20th century through the early s, its crucial themes and genres reflected deeply humanistic concerns and an ambivalent attitude toward modernity, eventually confronting the devastating experience of World War I and its aftermath.

A game in which each participant takes turns writing or drawing on a sheet of paper, folds it to conceal his or her contribution, then passes it to the next player for a further contribution.

The game gained popularity in artistic circles during the s, when it was adopted as a technique by artists of the Surrealist movement. A style of painting in the first decade of the 20th century that emphasized strong, vibrant color and bold brushstrokes over realistic or representational qualities.

Central among the loose group of artists were Henri Matisse and Andre Derain. Art seeking to challenge the dominance of men in both art and society, to gain recognition and equality for women artists, and to question assumptions about womanhood. While many of the debates inaugurated in these decades are still ongoing, a younger generation of feminist artists takes an approach incorporating intersecting concerns about race, class, forms of privilege, and gender identity and fluidity.

Both feminism and feminist art continue to evolve. Star Doll for Parkett No. Armorial Bearings from No Parking Anytime. A series of moving images, especially those recorded on film and projected onto a screen or other surface noun ; 2.

A sheet or roll of a flexible transparent material coated with an emulsion sensitive to light and used to capture an image for a photograph or film noun ; 3.

To record on film or video using a movie camera verb. How Not to Be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational.

A photograph taken during the production of a film that shows a particular moment or scene. These photographs are often used as advertisements or posters for the film. A specific size and style of a typeface design for example, Arial 12pt bold, or Times New Roman 10pt italics. The term is often confused with typeface, which is a particular design of type. The area of an image—usually a photograph, drawing, or painting—that appears closest to the viewer. Bridge over the Riou. Montroig, July —winter Paul Gauguin.

Montroig, July —winter Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. The Artist Is Present. One Ton Prop House of Cards. Paris, June—July Robert Morris. An object—often utilitarian, manufactured, or naturally occurring—that was not originally designed for an artistic purpose, but has been repurposed in an artistic context.

The method by which information is included or excluded from a photograph, film, or video. A photographer or filmmaker frames an image when he or she points a camera at a subject.

A technique that involves rubbing pencil, graphite, chalk, crayon, or another medium onto a sheet of paper that has been placed on top of a textured object or surface.

The process causes the raised portions of the surface below to be translated to the sheet. An Italian movement in art and literature catalyzed by a manifesto published in a newspaper by Italian poet F. The text celebrated new technology and modernization while advocating for a violent and decisive break from the past.

Working in the years just before World War I, the Futurists portrayed their subjects—often humans, machines, and vehicles in motion—with fragmented forms and surfaces that evoke the energy and dynamism of urban life in the early 20th century. A black-and-white photographic print made by exposing paper, which has been made light-sensitive by a coating of gelatin silver halide emulsion, to artificial or natural light; a photographic process invented by Dr.

Richard Leach Maddox in A water-based matte paint, sometimes called opaque watercolor, composed of ground pigments and plant-based binders, such as gum Arabic or gum tragacanth. The opacity of gouache derives from the addition of white fillers, such as clay or chalk, or a higher ratio of pigment to binder.

Characterized by ludicrous, repulsive, or incongruous distortion, as of appearance or manner; ugly, outlandish, or bizarre, as in character or appearance. A performance, event, or situation considered as art, especially those initiated by the artists group Fluxus in the early s.

Such events are often planned, but involve elements of improvisation, may take place in any location, are multidisciplinary, and frequently involve audience participation. Participation and Audience Involvement. An African American literary, artistic, and intellectual flowering, centered in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem and spanning the s to the mids.

Considered one of the most creative periods in American history, it fostered a new African American cultural identity. A pictographic communication system, closely associated with the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are stylized, recognizable pictures of the things and ideas represented. Having the character of an icon, i. April Hong Hao. Subject matter in visual art, often adhering to particular conventions of artistic representation, and imbued with symbolic meanings.

Montroig, July —winter Leni Riefenstahl. The Hat Makes the Man. May 6, Richard Prince. A 19th-century art movement, associated especially with French artists, whose works are characterized by relatively small, thin, visible brushstrokes that coalesce to form a single scene and emphasize movement and the changing qualities of light.

Anti-academic in its formal aspects, Impressionism also involved the establishment of independent exhibitions outside of the established and official venues of the day. The act of improvising, that is, to make, compose, or perform on the spur of the moment and with little or no preparation. Collage, Photomontage, and Assemblage. A flat slanting surface, connecting a lower level to a higher level. Examples include slides, ramps, and slopes. A field of design concerned with the aesthetics, form, functionality, and production of manufactured consumer objects.

The period beginning around characterized by a shift away from traditional industry and noted for the abundant publication, consumption, and manipulation of information, especially by computers and computer networks.

A form of art, developed in the late s, which involves the creation of an enveloping aesthetic or sensory experience in a particular environment, often inviting active engagement or immersion by the spectator.

One and Three Chairs. An art term describing the systematic inquiry into the practices and ethos surrounding art institutions such as art academies, galleries, and museums, often challenging assumed and historical norms of artistic theory and practice.

It often seeks to make visible the historically and socially constructed boundaries between inside and outside and public and private. A general term for metal-plate printmaking techniques, including etching, drypoint, engraving, aquatint, and mezzotint.

The practice of designing digital environments, products, systems, and services for human interaction. A discipline of design that focuses on the functional and aesthetic aspects of indoor spaces. A style of architecture that appeared from to and favored boxy structures, lack of decoration, and the use of materials such as steel, concrete, and glass. The period in American history between World Wars I and II, particularly the s, characterized especially by the rising popularity of jazz and by the open pursuit of social pleasures.

Paris, Chance Creations: Collage, Photomontage, and Assemblage Appropriation. It was electrically powered and worked with celluloid film, which was advanced through the camera via a system of sprockets. A peephole at the top of the Kinetoscope allowed people to view moving pictures as the celluloid rolled past. Montroig, July —winter Max Ernst. Barrett Lyon, the Opte Project. The Birth of the World. Montroig, late summer—fall Man Ray. Paris, June—July Rirkrit Tiravanija.

A printmaking technique that involves drawing with greasy crayons or a liquid called tusche, on a polished slab of limestone; aluminum plates, which are less cumbersome to handle, may also be used. The term is derived from the Greek words for stone litho and drawing graph.

When the greasy image is ready to be printed, a chemical mixture is applied across the surface of the stone or plate in order to securely bond it. This surface is then dampened with water, which adheres only to the blank, non-greasy areas. Damp paper is placed on top of this surface and run through a press to transfer the image. In addition to the traditional method described here, other types of lithography include offset lithography, photolithography, and transfer lithography.

Apparatus used to project an image, usually onto a screen. In use from the 17th to the early 20th century, it is a precursor of the modern slide projector. A transparent slide containing the image was placed between a source of illumination and a set of lenses to focus and direct the image. Paris, Surrealism Yvonne Rainer. The production of large amounts of standardized products through the use of machine-assembly production methods and equipment. Side Chair model DCW. New York, third version, after lost original of Max Ernst.

The materials used to create a work of art, and the categorization of art based on the materials used for example, painting [or more specifically, watercolor], drawing, sculpture. Modern Portraits Tino Sehgal. A drama, such as a play, film, or television program, characterized by exaggerated emotions, stereotypical characters, and interpersonal conflicts; 2.

Behavior or occurrences having melodramatic characteristics. A term invented by the artist Kurt Schwitters to describe his works made from scavenged fragments and objects. Transcending physical matter or the laws of nature. Metaphysics refers to the branch of philosophy that studies that fundamental nature of being and knowing. A primarily American artistic movement of the s, characterized by simple geometric forms devoid of representational content. Relying on industrial technologies and rational processes, Minimalist artists challenged traditional notions of craftsmanship, using commercial materials such as fiberglass and aluminum, and often employing mathematical systems to determine the composition of their works.

A technique involving the use of two or more artistic media, such as ink and pastel or painting and collage, that are combined in a single composition; 2. A designation for an artist who works with a number of different artistic media. A detailed three-dimensional representation, usually built to scale, of another, often larger, object. In architecture, a three-dimensional representation of a concept or design for a building; 2.

A person who poses for an artist. Victorinox Swiss Officers' Knife Champion no. Modern can mean related to current times, but it can also indicate a relationship to a particular set of ideas that, at the time of their development, were new or even experimental.

April Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. An assembly of images that relate to one another in some way to create a single work or part of a work of art. A montage is more formal than a collage, and is usually based on a theme. Le Perreux-sur-Marne, Rirkrit Tiravanija. A term referring to small-scale, three-dimensional works of art conceived and produced in relatively large editions, and often issued by the same individuals or organizations that publish prints.

Paris, June—July Paul Gauguin. A previously exposed and developed photographic film or plate showing an image that, in black-and-white photography, has a reversal of tones for example, white eyes appear black. In color photography, the image is in complementary colors to the subject for example, a blue sky appears yellow. The transfer of a negative image to another surface results in a positive image. Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century El Lissitzky.

Led by the example of Georges Seurat, the Neo-Impressionists renounced the spontaneity of Impressionism in favor of a measured painting technique grounded in science and the study of optics. Neo-Impressionists came to believe that separate touches of pigment result in a greater vibrancy of color than is achieved by the conventional mixing of pigments on the palette. A representative style of art that was developed in the s in Germany by artists including Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz.

Artworks in this style were often satirical in nature, sending a critical eye upon contemporary taste and the postwar society of Germany. In both content and style, artists of this movement directly challenged and broke away from the traditions of the art academies they had attended. A term referring to the islands of the southern, western, and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Paris, June—July Expressionism. A distinguished European artist of the period from about to the early s, especially one of the great painters of this period, e. In computer software, open source refers to source code that is freely available and may be modified.

Open-source software is often developed publicly and collaboratively. Having characteristics of a biological entity, or organism, or developing in the manner of a living thing. Accessories, decoration, adornment, or details that have been applied to an object or structure to beautify its appearance. Montroig, late summer—fall John Baldessari. Paris, Pablo Picasso. Montroig, July —winter John Baldessari.

The range of colors used by an artist in making a work of art; 2. A thin wooden or plastic board on which an artist holds and mixes paint. A flexible, thin blade with a handle, typically used for mixing paint colors or applying them to a canvas.

To pivot a movie camera along a horizontal plane in order to follow an object or create a panoramic effect. A soft and delicate shade of a color adjective ; a soft drawing stick composed of finely ground pigment mixed with a gum tragacanth binder noun. Pastel sticks are often applied to a textured paper support. The pastel particles sit loosely on the surface of the paper and can be blended using brushes, fingers, or other soft implements.

Pastels can also be dipped into water to create a denser mark on the paper or ground into a powder and mixed with water to create a paint that can be applied by brush.

Because pastel drawings are easily smudged they are sometimes sprayed with fixative, a thin layer of adhesive. A term that emerged in the s to describe a diverse range of live presentations by artists, including actions, movements, gestures, and choreography. Performance art is often preceded by, includes, or is later represented through various forms of video, photography, objects, written documentation, or oral and physical transmission. Technique used to depict volumes and spatial relationships on a flat surface, as in a painted scene that appears to extend into the distance.

A photographic print made by placing objects and other elements on photosensitive paper and exposing it to light. An image, especially a positive print, recorded by exposing a photosensitive surface to light, especially in a camera.

Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century Barbara Kopple. April Howardena Pindell.

A machine that makes quick duplicate positive or negative copies directly on the surface of prepared paper. Also, the resulting copies.

An international style of photography in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by the creation of artistic tableaus and photographs composed of multiple prints or manipulated negatives, in an effort to advocate for photography as an artistic medium on par with painting. The virtual, illusionary plane created by the artist, parallel to the physical surface of a two-dimensional work of art; the physical surface of a two-dimensional work of art, e.

A substance, usually finely powdered, that produces the color of any medium. When mixed with oil, water, or another fluid, it becomes paint. A scale drawing or diagram showing the structure or organization of an object or group of objects. Monument 1 for V. A term applied to many natural and synthetic materials with different forms, properties, and appearances that are malleable and can be molded into different shapes or objects.

A term broadly applied to all the visual arts to distinguish them from such non-visual arts as literature, poetry, or music. Any of a group of substances that are used in the manufacture of plastics or other materials to impart flexibility, softness, hardness, or other desired physical properties to the finished product. In printmaking, the flat surface onto which the design is etched, engraved, or otherwise applied.

A material made of thin layers of wood that have been heated, glued, and pressed together by a machine. Charles Eames and Ray Eames. A painting technique developed by French artists Georges-Pierre Seurat and Paul Signac in which small, distinct points of unmixed color are applied in patterns to form an image. One of the most common forms of plastic known for being tough, light, and flexible. Made of synthetic materials, polyethylene is commonly used in plastic bags, food containers, and other packaging.

A movement comprising initially British, then American artists in the s and s. Pop artists borrowed imagery from popular culture—from sources including television, comic books, and print advertising—often to challenge conventional values propagated by the mass media, from notions of femininity and domesticity to consumerism and patriotism. Their often subversive and irreverent strategies of appropriation extended to their materials and methods of production, which were drawn from the commercial world.

Cultural activities, ideas, or products that reflect or target the tastes of the general population of any society.

A representation of a particular individual, usually intended to capture their likeness or personality. Paul Strand, Charles Sheeler. May 6, Richard Pettibone. Retrospective Bust of a Woman. In photography, images capable of being produced in multiples that result from the transfer of a negative image to another surface, such as a photographic print on paper.

Though each of these artists developed his own, distinctive style, they were unified by their interest in expressing their emotional and psychological responses to the world through bold colors and expressive, often symbolic images. Post-Impressionism can be roughly dated from to Expressionism Vincent van Gogh. In art, postmodernism refers to a reaction against modernism. It is less a cohesive movement than an approach and attitude toward art, culture, and society.

Its main characteristics include anti-authoritarianism, or refusal to recognize the authority of any single style or definition of what art should be; and the collapsing of the distinction between high culture and mass or popular culture, and between art and everyday life.

Postmodern art can be also characterized by a deliberate use of earlier styles and conventions, and an eclectic mixing of different artistic and popular styles and mediums. When the cylinder spins, a mirror fixed in its center reflects the images and makes them appear animated. Montroig, late summer—fall A term initially used to refer to the arts of all of Africa, Asia, and Pre-Columbian America, later used mostly to refer to art from Africa and the Pacific Islands.

By the late 20th century the term, with its derogatory connotations, fell out of favor. A work of art on paper that usually exists in multiple copies. It is created not by drawing directly on paper, but through a transfer process. The artist begins by creating a composition on another surface, such as metal or wood, and the transfer occurs when that surface is inked and a sheet of paper, placed in contact with it, is run through a printing press. Four common printmaking techniques are woodcut, etching, lithography, and screenprint.

Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century. Any systematic, widespread dissemination or promotion of particular ideas, doctrines, practices, etc. Propaganda may take many different forms, including public or recorded speeches, texts, films, and visual or artistic matter such as posters, paintings, sculptures, or public monuments.

Polyvinyl chloride, abbreviated PVC, is a common type of plastic often used in clothing, upholstery, electrical cable insulation, and inflatable products. A term invented by Man Ray to describe what is conventionally known as a photogram, or photographic print made by placing objects and other elements on photosensitive paper and exposing it to light.

A term coined by Marcel Duchamp in to describe prefabricated, often mass-produced objects isolated from their intended use and elevated to the status of art by the artist choosing and designating them as such. New York, third version, after lost original of Marcel Duchamp. In Advance of the Broken Arm. Body parts or personal belongings of saints and other important figures that are preserved for purposes of commemoration or veneration.

What Will Become of Me. A term meaning rebirth or revival; applied to a period characterized by the humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning, originating in Italy in the fourteenth century and later spreading throughout Europe and lasting through the sixteenth century. A style of art, particularly in architecture and decorative art, that originated in France in the early s and is marked by elaborate ornamentation, including, for example, a profusion of scrolls, foliage, and animal forms.

A genre of visual art that uses humor, irony, ridicule, or caricature to expose or criticize someone or something. The ratio between the size of an object and its model or representation, as in the scale of a map to the actual geography it represents.

The Palace at 4 a. Self Portrait with Cropped Hair. Killing of the Banquet Roast. Rise of the Modern City Thomas Demand. A loosely defined affiliation of international artists living and working in Paris from until about , who applied a diversity of new styles and techniques to such traditional subjects as portraiture, figure studies, landscapes, cityscapes, and still lifes.

A stencil-based printmaking technique in which the first step is to stretch and attach a woven fabric originally made of silk, but now more commonly of synthetic material tightly over a wooden frame to create a screen. Areas of the screen that are not part of the image are blocked out with a variety of stencil-based methods.

A squeegee is then used to press ink through the unblocked areas of the screen, directly onto paper. Screenprints typically feature bold, hard-edged areas of flat, unmodulated color. Also known as silkscreen and serigraphy. One who produces a three-dimensional work of art using any of a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials.

A three-dimensional work of art made by a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials. Paris, Mike Kelley. The person responsible for arranging the furnishings, drapery, lighting fixtures, artwork, and many other objects that together constitute the setting for scenes in television and film.

Montroig, late summer—fall Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Today, any film running for 40 minutes or less and therefore not considered long enough to be a feature-length film. A mechanical device for controlling the aperture, or opening, in a camera through which light passes to the film or plate. By opening and closing for different amounts of time, the shutter determines the length of the photographic exposure. A rendering of the basic elements of a composition, often made in a loosely detailed or quick manner.

Sketches can be both finished works of art or studies for another composition. A substance capable of dissolving another material. In painting, the solvent is a liquid that thins the paint. Sounds that are most often added during editing, rather than recorded at the time of filming. Sound effects take a number of different forms. Walt Disney, Ub Iwerks. A sound technology, first developed in the early 20th century, that became commercially viable in the late s.

In this system, music and dialogue were recorded on waxed records that were played in sync with the film via a turntable connected to a film projector through an interlocking mechanism. A sound technology, initially developed in the early 20th century, that became commercially viable in the late s and eventually supplanted the sound-on-disc system. In sound-on-film, sound waves were converted into light waves that were then photographically inscribed onto the film itself.

This allowed for a single strip of film to carry both pictures and the soundtrack, which was imprinted alongside the pictures and read by special projectors. In artistic contexts, paint thinned by a considerable amount of solvent. Stains are absorbed into the canvas, rather than remaining on its surface.

An impervious material perforated with letters, shapes, or patterns through which a substance passes to a surface below. To represent in or make conform to a particular style, especially when highly conventionalized or artistic rather than naturalistic. In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc.

Montroig, late summer—fall Louise Bourgeois. Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century Cindy Sherman. Le Perreux-sur-Marne, Richard Avedon.

May 6, Robert Delaunay. Awe-inspiring or worthy of reverence. In philosophy, literature, and the arts, the sublime refers to a quality of greatness that is beyond all calculation. A term coined by Russian artist Kazimir Malevich in to describe a new mode of abstract painting that abandoned all reference to the outside world.

This resource introduces cubist artists, ideas and techniques and provides discussion and activities. Merry-Go-Round is one of the most recognisable works in Tate's collection, but how did the painting come about? What do we see in the mirror? We all age, and yet we all battle against the inexorable decline of Main menu additional Become a Member Shop. Discover our collection Find out more. London by Night Join photographic artist Antony Cairns as he explores the city at night. Artists In the Collection.

Discover more about art with Tate App Download now. Giorgio de Chirico — Angela de la Cruz born Yinka Shonibare, MBE born Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is the name commonly used to identify a circle of intellectuals and artists who lived in Bloomsbury, near central London, in the period — Feminist art Feminist art is art by artists made consciously in the light of developments in feminist art theory in the early s.

Performance art Artworks that are created through actions performed by the artist or other participants, which may be live or recorded, spontaneous or scripted.

Further Resources - Poetry: Further References - Drama: Further References - Short Story: As the critical attention to biography waned in the mid-twentieth century, interest in autobiography increased.

Autobiography paired well with theories such as structuralism and poststructuralism because autobiography was fertile ground for considering the divide between fact and fiction, challenging the possibility of presenting a life objectively, and examining how the shaping force of language prohibited any simple attempts at truth and reference. Classical autobiographies focused on public figures, were, largely, written by men, and works theorizing autobiography primarily treated men's life writing.

Until the mids, little work was done on theorizing women's autobiographies. Interest in travel and travel writing has emerged as the result of an intellectual climate that is interrogating imperialism, colonialism, postcolonialism, ethnography, diaspora, multiculturalism, nationalism, identity, visual culture, and map theory.

Donald Ross's Snapshot Traveller. Other General Literary Theory Websites: Cross-Cultural Travel Conroy Volume 7. Travel, Text, Empire Gilbert Volume 4. Weary Sons of Conrad Cooper Volume 3. Imagining Transit Hutchinson Volume 2. Perceptions of Race and Nation Schmeller Volume 5. New Criticism A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.

Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren, eds. Seven Types of Ambiguity. After the New Criticism. Jefferson, Anne and David Robey. U of Kentucky P, In Defense of Reason.

See also the works of Robert D. Denham, John Fekete, and William J. Collective Unconscious - "a set of primal memories common to the human race, existing below each person's conscious mind" Jung Persona - the image we present to the world Shadow - darker, sometimes hidden deliberately or unconsciously , elements of a person's psyche Further references: Archetypal Patterns in Poetry. Hero with a Thousand Faces. Anatomy of Criticism and Fables of Identity. Greek Myths and The White Goddess.

The Wheel of Fire: Interpretations of Shakespearean Tragedy. Archetypal Patterns in Women's Fiction. Victor Daniels Psychology Dept. Id - completely unconscious part of the psyche that serves as a storehouse of our desires, wishes, and fears.

The id houses the libido, the source of psychosexual energy. Superego - often thought of as one's "conscience"; the superego operates "like an internal censor [encouraging] moral judgments in light of social pressures" , Bressler - see General Resources below.

Symbolic - the stage marking a child's entrance into language the ability to understand and generate symbols ; in contrast to the imaginary stage, largely focused on the mother, the symbolic stage shifts attention to the father who, in Lacanian theory, represents cultural norms, laws, language, and power the symbol of power is the phallus --an arguably "gender-neutral" term.

Real - an unattainable stage representing all that a person is not and does not have. Both Lacan and his critics argue whether the real order represents the period before the imaginary order when a child is completely fulfilled--without need or lack, or if the real order follows the symbolic order and represents our "perennial lack" because we cannot return to the state of wholeness that existed before language. The Interpretation of Dreams. The Legend of Freud.

Quigley "Introduction to Psychoanalysis" by Dr. Dino Felluga "The Mind and the Book: Holland "Psychoanalysis and Sigmund Freud" by Dr. Mary Klages University of Colorado at Boulder Marxism A sociological approach to literature that viewed works of literature or art as the products of historical forces that can be analyzed by looking at the material conditions in which they were formed.

Monthly Review P, Cary, Nelson, and Lawrence Gross berg, eds. Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Bullock, Chris and David Peck. Guide to Marxist Criticism. U of California P, Twentieth-Century Dialectical Theories of Literature. Mary Klages - University of Colorado at Boulder Postcolonialism Literally, postcolonialism refers to the period following the decline of colonialism, e.

Alterity - "lack of identification with some part of one's personality or one's community, differentness, otherness" Diaspora dI-ASP-er-ah- "is used without capitalization to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands, being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture" Wikipedia.

Ashcroft, Bill, Griffiths, and Tiffin, Helen. The Empire Writes Back: Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, eds. The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. The Virtual Spaces of Postcoloniality: Rushdie, Ondaatje, Naipaul, Bakhtin and the Others.

Harding, Sandra and Uma Narayan, ed. Multicultural and Postcolonial Feminist Challenges to Philosophy 2. Indiana University Press, Fanon, Frantz, Black Skin. Myth, Literature, and the African World. Essays in Cultural Politics. Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism. Aaron Kelly - University of Edinburgh Existentialism Existentialism is a philosophy promoted especially by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus that views each person as an isolated being who is cast into an alien universe, and conceives the world as possessing no inherent human truth, value, or meaning.

A Study in Existential Philosophy. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. Harper and Row, The Philosophy of Existentialism , New York: An Essay on Self Knowledge , Princeton: Princeton University Press, Beyond Good and Evil. University of Chicago Press, Existentialism and Humanism and Being and Nothingness. Sources of the Self: Harvard University Press, David Banach "Jean-Paul Sartre: The Humanism of Existentialism" by Dr. Bob Zunjic University of Rhode Island "Fredrich Nietzsche" - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Phenomenology and Hermeneutics Phenomenology Phenomenology is a philosophical method, first developed by Edmund Husserl HUHSS-erel , that proposed "phenomenological reduction" so that everything not "immanent" to consciousness must be excluded; all realities must be treated as pure "phenomena" and this is the only absolute data from which we can begin.

The Space of Literature. Communication and the Evolution of Society. An Approach to Heidegger. The Aims of Interpretation. An Introduction to Phenomenological Philosophy. Interpretation Theory in Schliermacher. The Conflict of Interpretation: Heteroglossia - "refers, first, to the way in which every instance of language use - every utterance - is embedded in a specific set of social circumstances, and second, to the way the meaning of each particular utterance is shaped and influenced by the many-layered context in which it occurs" Sarah Willen, "Dialogism and Heteroglossia" Monologism - "having one single voice, or representing one single ideological stance or perspective, often used in opposition to the Bakhtinian dialogical.

Four Essays and Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. A Prague School Reader. Georgetown Academic P, Bakhtin and His World.

Style in Language , pp. See chapters 1 and 2. Essays on Fiction and Criticism. The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship: A Critical Introduction to Sociological Poetics. Michigan State UP, Prague Linguistic Circle - Dr. John Goho l "Mikhail Bakhtin" by Dr. The Absence of Myth: Edited, translated, and introduced by Michael Richardson.

Theory of the Avant-Garde. An Essay on the Contemporary Avant-Garde. Andre Breton and the Basic Concepts of Surrealism. University of Alabama Press, Toward the Poetics of Surrealism. David Cunningham, The Literary Encyclopedia Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures.

Northwestern UP, Hill and Wang, The Pleasure of the Text. Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature.

Revolution in Poetic Language and Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art.

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Abstract Expressionism. The dominant artistic movement in the s and s, Abstract Expressionism was the first to place New York City at the forefront of international modern art.

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Touch of Modern is the most popular men's fashion site. Discover Modern Designs up to 70% Off. Guaranteed Lowest Prices. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.