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Assisted Suicide Research Paper

1. INTRODUCTION

❶Massachusetts Medical Society,

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The drugs are setup and provided to the patient and the patient has the choice as to when they deliver them by pressing a button themselves. This is a controversial topic that has both proponents and opponents for various the reasons.

Ethical Issue of Assisted Suicide The American Society of Registered Nurses [ASRN] defines "physician-assisted suicide" as the facility to a patient by a medical health professional of the means of ending his or her own life. Assisted suicide is an issue of great importance to nurses. This issue echoes their values and beliefs as a commonality. In the same time it calls for a clear and precise response as.

The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs VA medical center hereinafter alternatively "VAMC" that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. Description of environment and rationale for.

Brittany Maynard Case The case of Brittany Maynard is a fairly textbook one when it comes to the discussions that center on doctor-assisted suicide and euthanasia in general. Please don't use "I" when supporting my ideas, please support ideas with research. I will try to e-mail you my first paper.

I know it is not very good, but it will give you some idea of what my first paper was about. Also it will give you my internet sources.

I hope I haven't forgotten anything Thank so much. The main thing is paper should be worded with citations only as a supporting point. Research Paper Essay Instructions: Essay must be between and words. Write the word count for each essay at the top of your paper. In fairness to other students, papers that are either over or under the word count will be penalized.

You may not use quotations. You may paraphrase the text in your own words, and you must cite essays individually in a bibliography. You do not need to cite lecture notes. In fairness to other students papers that do not include a complete and properly formatted bibliography will be penalized.

You may only use your text and class notes while researching and writing your essay. You may not use any other sources — including internet websites. You may not collaborate with any other students in any way. Double-space your essay and include page numbers. At the tope of each essay include your name, the word count. In favor of the moral permissibility of active physician assisted suicide.

Write an argumentative essay in which you evaluate either James Rachels or Dan Brocks argument in favor of the moral permissibility of active physician assisted suicide. Your paper should be structured as follows. This section should be clearly organized into argumentative steps and should carefully explain the rationale offered by the author to support each claim. This section should only raise one objection. The objection should be clearly and narrowly focused on a specific point or step from the previous section.

This section should not restate the argumentative points advanced in part one; instead, this section should consider the best possible response to the objection. You may draw on other class readings to help motivate your response in this section including Oregons Death with Dignity Actand R. The laws in the Netherlands and Luxembourg also allow pas.

In the United States, the states of Oregon and Washington legalized pas in and respectively, but euthanasia remains illegal 3. In the Netherlands, euthanasia and pas were formally legalized in after about 30 years of public debate 1. Despite opposition, including that from the Belgian Medical Association, Belgium legalized euthanasia in after about 3 years of public discourse that included government commissions.

The law was guided by the Netherlands and Oregon experiences, and the public was assured that any defects in the Dutch law would be addressed in the Belgian law. Luxembourg legalized euthanasia and pas in Switzerland is an exception, in that assisted suicide, although not formally legalized, is tolerated as a result of a loophole in a law dating back to the early s that decriminalizes suicide.

Euthanasia, however, is illegal 4. A person committing suicide may do so with assistance as long as the assistant has no selfish motives and does not stand to gain personally from the death. Unlike other jurisdictions that require euthanasia or assisted suicide to be performed only by physicians, Switzerland allows non-physicians to assist suicide.

In all these jurisdictions, safeguards, criteria, and procedures were put in place to control the practices, to ensure societal oversight, and to prevent euthanasia and pas from being abused or misused 5. Some criteria and procedures are common across the jurisdictions; others vary from country to country 5 , 6. The extent to which these controls and safeguards have been able to control the practices and to avoid abuse merits closer inspection, particularly by jurisdictions contemplating the legalization of euthanasia and pas.

In all jurisdictions, the request for euthanasia or pas has to be voluntary, well-considered, informed, and persistent over time. The requesting person must provide explicit written consent and must be competent at the time the request is made. Despite those safeguards, more than people in the Netherlands are euthanized involuntarily every year.

In , a total of deaths by euthanasia or pas were reported, representing 1. More than people 0. For every 5 people euthanized, 1 is euthanized without having given explicit consent. Attempts at bringing those cases to trial have failed, providing evidence that the judicial system has become more tolerant over time of such transgressions 5.

In Belgium, the rate of involuntary and non-voluntary euthanasia deaths that is, without explicit consent is 3 times higher than it is in the Netherlands 8 , 9.

Those findings accord with the results of a previous study in which 25 of non-sudden deaths had been the result of euthanasia without explicit consent 8. Some proponents of euthanasia contend that the foregoing figures are misrepresentative, because many people may have at some time in their lives expressed a wish for or support of euthanasia, albeit not formally. The counterargument is that the legal requirement of explicit written consent is important if abuse and misuse are to be avoided.

After all, written consent has become essential in medical research when participants are to be subjected to an intervention, many of which pose far lesser mortality risks. Recent history is replete with examples of abuse of medical research in the absence of explicit informed consent. Reporting is mandatory in all the jurisdictions, but this requirement is often ignored 11 , In Belgium, nearly half of all cases of euthanasia are not reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Legal requirements were more frequently not met in unreported cases than in reported cases: The involvement of nurses gives cause for concern because all the jurisdictions, with the exception of Switzerland, require that the acts be performed only by physicians.

In a recent study in Flanders, nurses reported having cared for a patient who received life-ending drugs without explicit request In many instances, the physicians were absent. Factors significantly associated with a nurse administering the life-ending drugs included the nurse being a male working in a hospital and the patient being over 80 years of age. All jurisdictions except for Switzerland require a consultation by a second physician to ensure that all criteria have been met before proceeding with euthanasia or pas.

The consultant must be independent not connected with the care of the patient or with the care provider and must provide an objective assessment. However, there is evidence from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Oregon that this process is not universally applied 10 , Moreover, non-reporting seems to be associated with a lack of consultation by a second doctor In Oregon, a physician member of a pro-assisted-suicide lobby group provided the consultation in 58 of 61 consecutive cases of patients receiving pas in Oregon This raises concerns about the objectivity of the process and the safety of the patients, and raises questions about the influence of bias on the part of these physicians on the process.

Networks of physicians trained to provide the consultation role when euthanasia is sought have been established in the Netherlands Support and Consultation on Euthanasia in the Netherlands and Belgium [Life End Information Forum leif ] Their role includes ensuring that the person is informed of all options, including palliative care.

However, most leif physicians have simply followed a hour theoretical course, of which only 3 hours are related to palliative care, hardly sufficient to enable a leif member to provide adequate advice on complex palliative care needs The development of expertise in palliative care, as in any other specialty, requires a considerable amount of time.

In the United Kingdom, it involves a 4-year residency program, and in Australia and the United States, 3 years. In , none of the people who died by lethal ingestion in Oregon had been evaluated by a psychiatrist or a psychologist 20 , despite considerable evidence that, compared with non-depressed patients, patients who are depressed are more likely to request euthanasia and that treatment for depression will often result in the patient rescinding the request 21 — Despite that finding, many health professionals and family members of patients in Oregon who pursue pas generally do not believe that depression influences the choice for hastened death A recent Oregon-based study demonstrated that some depressed patients are slipping through the cracks Among terminally ill patients who received a prescription for a lethal drug, 1 in 6 had clinical depression.

Of the 18 patients in the study who received a prescription for the lethal drug, 3 had major depression, and all of them went on to die by lethal ingestion, but had been assessed by a mental health specialist. There is evidence, therefore, that safeguards are ineffective and that many people who should not be euthanized or receive pas are dying by those means. Of concern, too, is the fact that transgressions of the laws are not prosecuted and that the tolerance level for transgressions of the laws has increased.

The interpretations proposed by Keown in 27 appear very relevant, however. The first interpretation postulates that acceptance of one sort of euthanasia will lead to other, even less acceptable, forms of euthanasia. The second contends that euthanasia and pas , which originally would be regulated as a last-resort option in only very select situations, could, over time, become less of a last resort and be sought more quickly, even becoming a first choice in some cases.

The circumvention of safeguards and laws, with little if any prosecution, provides some evidence of the social slippery slope phenomenon described by Keown 5 , Till now, no cases of euthanasia have been sent to the judicial authorities for further investigation in Belgium. In the Netherlands, 16 cases 0. In one case, a counsellor who provided advice to a non-terminally ill person on how to commit suicide was acquitted There has therefore been an increasing tolerance toward transgressions of the law, indicating a change in societal values after legalization of euthanasia and assisted suicide.

However, basing a request on an advance directive or living will may be ethically problematic because the request is not contemporaneous with the act and may not be evidence of the will of the patient at the time euthanasia is carried out.

Initially, in the s and s, euthanasia and pas advocates in the Netherlands made the case that these acts would be limited to a small number of terminally ill patients experiencing intolerable suffering and that the practices would be considered last-resort options only. That change is most concerning in light of evidence of elder abuse in many societies, including Canada 33 , and evidence that a large number of frail elderly people and terminally ill patients already feel a sense of being burden on their families and society, and a sense of isolation.

The concern that these people may feel obliged to access euthanasia or pas if it were to become available is therefore not unreasonable, although evidence to verify that concern is not currently available. This definition enables physicians to assist in suicide without inquiring into the source of the medical, psychological, social, and existential concerns that usually underlie requests for assisted suicide.

Physicians are required to indicate that palliative care is a feasible alternative, but are not required to be knowledgeable about how to relieve physical or emotional suffering. Until , the Netherlands allowed only adults access to euthanasia or pas.

However, the law allowed for children aged 12—16 years to be euthanized if consent is provided by their parents, even though this age group is generally not considered capable of making such decisions 5. The law even allows physicians to proceed with euthanasia if there is disagreement between the parents. In , legislators in Belgium announced their intention to change the euthanasia law to include infants, teenagers, and people with dementia or Alzheimer disease

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Physician Assisted Suicide, Is it Right or Wrong SOC May 9, Physician Assisted Suicide, Is it Right or Wrong? The ethical issues of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) are both emotional and controversial, as it ranks right up there with abortion.

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Assisted Suicide Research Paper October 24, writer Research Papers 0 Euthanasia is one of the solutions for people suffering from various incurable diseases and sicknesses that are too painful for them to handle.

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In conclusion, assisted suicide in its controversies has over the time been done for what humans believe is for the good of the person. Some unbearable medical conditions have prompted medical practitioners to carry out assisted suicide. Physician Assisted Suicide research papers discuss the ethical problems that occur with the issue of physician assisted suicide. Euthanasia and Medical Ethics research papers examine how the AMA views physician assisted suicide. Order a research paper on Euthanasia from Paper Masters.

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- Physician assisted suicide Physician assisted suicide, a suicide made possible by a physician providing a patient with the means to kill themselves, and euthanasia, the . Assisted Suicide Research Paper This sample Assisted Suicide Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.