Finally, they obtained the consent of the individual families involved Doumbo, For example, contact information for a U. IRB is not realistic due to language, access, or other issues. In such cases, it is more relevant to provide contact information for a local, within-country entity whom the respondent could more realistically contact with any questions or concerns. Develop protocol for interviewers and other project members to use to protect respondent identifying details and survey data.
Protection of respondent identity and data is a crucial element of the concept beneficence ; that is, protecting respondents from harm, and, specifically, harm stemming from disclosure of survey responses. Protection of respondent confidentiality is achieved through appropriate interviewer training as well as data processing, storage, and dissemination procedures.
Interviewers are often the first and only member of the research team with whom the respondent has contact. Consider requiring staff to complete an online ethics course, such as the ethical training course offered by the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative: It is important to note that preserving confidentiality takes on even greater significance if local interviewers are working in areas where they may be acquainted with sample members prior to the interview request.
PII minimally includes name, address, telephone number, and identification number s including an identification number assigned by a government agency such as a social security number in the United States or a national registration identity card number in the United Kingdom , but may include other information including biometric data.
This agreement should include an explicit statement that the outside party cannot use contact information or any other information to recontact the respondent for any reason not directly related to the study e.
Interviewer training should include examples of anticipated breaches of confidentiality such as reporting of abuse witnessed within the household , as well as discussion about the use of common sense, based on what interviewers know about the survey, to determine whether a breach has occurred or when a breach may be necessary. If the data collection mode involves any form of technology, take the appropriate steps to secure electronic data and train interviewers accordingly see Data Collection: Face-to-Face Surveys , Guideline 3.
Loss or theft of equipment containing confidential survey data is a breach of confidentiality and should be reported to the IRB overseeing the project.
During the production period of a survey in a South Asian country, political activists burglarized the local data collection firm and stole several laptops which contained survey data files.
Fortunately, the data files were securely encrypted and did not contain any identifying information. Nevertheless, the incidence was reported to the IRB overseeing the project. Develop procedures and obtain voluntary informed reconsent for any additional data collection activities.
It is becoming increasingly common for survey research to include additional measurement modes beyond the survey questionnaire, including collection of biomeasures in addition to linkages to other data sources, such as government registries e.
Social Security Administration data or social media data e. After the survey questionnaire is complete, a second consent procedure—that is, a reconsent—is administered for the secondary data collection. Because there would be a cost born by the study for DNA processing, the reconsent form explicitly stated that the respondents would bear no extra cost as a result of participation in this study.
Respondents were given the option to receive a general summary of the study results and to receive the results of the study that pertain specifically to the respondent.
Additionally, respondents were asked a series of questions regarding consent to the potential use of any leftover saliva samples in the future. Designing study protocols that are sensitive to cultural traditions and norms is vital to building trust and gaining cooperation.
Being respectful of cultural norms and customs also leaves individual participants with a positive impression of the research community. Beyond the individual level, it may forestall negative political and social consequences.
Finally, participation in social science and health studies may promote awareness of research issues in the community. Document any necessary exclusions. Avoid the use of technical language or jargon. See Guideline 4 in Data Collection: See Guideline 3 in Data Collection: General Considerations for more on incentives.
These authors also recommend care in how language is interpreted or what the semantics of language is assumed to mean. In a study involving year-old boys in India, in-home interviews tended to include relatives and neighbors. In a fertility study in Guatemala, interviewers were effectively barred from a rural municipality by the single act of a local priest. Researchers in Mali found that documenting the consent process with a signed paper was a challenge. At first, villagers were opposed to signing any document, because they strongly believed that their word should be sufficient.
In addition, participants found the legal language difficult to understand. It took very careful explanation and patience to overcome this resistance Doumbo, Oral consent may also be necessary because of literacy limitations, to which sensitivity should be applied. In some religiously conservative countries, such as Egypt, it is considered inappropriate to ask general questions about religion, such as whether the respondent believes in God.
In a 3MC survey in the Middle East, researchers prefaced the item about belief in God with the statement: Report research findings and methods and provide appropriate access to study data. Professional social science organizations generally agree that their members should report findings to benefit the widest possible community. From this, it follows that data collection agencies should provide full information to allow readers and data users to assess both methodology and results.
Dissemination of results and research reports also increases public confidence and alerts potential users to limits of accuracy and reliability , avoiding misinterpretation of findings. In addition, sharing documentation on study methods can assist other researchers in making informed choices about research design and implementation in future studies. After all, we would rather risk denying treatment for a while until we achieve enough confidence in a treatment, rather than run the risk of harming innocent people as in the Nuremberg and Tuskegee events.
But now, those who were threatened with fatal illness were saying to the research establishment that they wanted to be test subjects, even under experimental conditions of considerable risk. You had several very vocal and articulate patient groups who wanted to be experimented on coming up against an ethical review system that was designed to protect them from being experimented on.
Although the last few years in the ethics of research have been tumultuous ones, it is beginning to appear that a new consensus is evolving that involves the stakeholder groups most affected by a problem participating more actively in the formulation of guidelines for research.
While it's not entirely clear, at present, what the new consensus will be, it is almost certain that it will not fall at either extreme: There are a number of key phrases that describe the system of ethical protections that the contemporary social and medical research establishment have created to try to protect better the rights of their research participants.
The principle of voluntary participation requires that people not be coerced into participating in research. This is especially relevant where researchers had previously relied on 'captive audiences' for their subjects -- prisons, universities, and places like that. Closely related to the notion of voluntary participation is the requirement of informed consent.
Essentially, this means that prospective research participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give their consent to participate. Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation. In these cases, religious doctrine imparts a sense of applied ethics, where one considers what right conduct is, how to live a life pleasing to the Divine and how one should treat himself and others in accordance with those teachings.
Again, as ethical considerations is a broad philosophical concept, it can apply to any situation where the person ponders the nature of right and wrong, how to recognize the difference and the meaning those conclusions carry for everyday life. Quick Answer Ethical considerations are those that pertain to moral values and decision-making at the individual or societal levels. What Are Ethical Considerations? Full Answer Ethical questions of any nature are largely philosophical; hence, they can differ depending on the person holding them.
Learn more about Ethics. What Are Medical Ethics and Etiquette? Medical ethics and etiquette are the professional values and protocols that bind medical practitioners such as physicians, doctors, nurses, primary health You May Also Like Q:
Because ethical considerations are so important in research, many professional associations and agencies have adopted codes and policies that outline ethical behavior and guide researchers. These codes address issues such as honesty, objectivity, respect for intellectual property, social responsibility, confidentiality, non-discrimination and many others.
We are going through a time of profound change in our understanding of the ethics of applied social research. From the time immediately after World War II until the early s, there was a gradually developing consensus about the key ethical principles that should underlie the research endeavor.
Ethical discussions usually remain detached or marginalized from discussions of research projects. In fact, some researchers consider this aspect of research as an afterthought. Yet, the moral integrity of the researcher is a critically important aspect of ensuring that the research process and a researcher’s findings are trust - worthy and valid. This assignment will then culminate with a critical analysis of why ethical considerations are important when conducting social research. Ethics is defined as the values and morals upheld during interaction with others during the collection of data and the dissemination of findings (Merriam, ).
Ethical Considerations can be specified as one of the most important parts of the research. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. According to Bryman and Bell () the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? Databases; Electron Paramagnetic Resonance/Electron Spin Resonance (EPR/ESR) Most people learn ethical norms at home, at school, in church, or in other social settings. Although most people acquire their sense of right and wrong during.