If you're referencing a dissertation, you're likely to have many tens if not hundreds of sources. If you think of your bibliography as something separate from the process of researching and writing and plan to leave it till the end, remembering every single source you cited and finding all its bibliographic details is going to be a daunting task, to say the least.
You need to develop a systematic way of tracking and organising works you've read and cited, both for your own retrieval later and for use in in-text citations and your bibliography. There are various ways to do this: But by far the most efficient way to store, retrieve, and cite the sources you find — especially if you're working with lots of recent, online sources — is to use reference management software.
Universities often have subscriptions to commercial packages like RefWorks and EndNote, but you can still save a lot of time with a freeware package like Zotero though it has far less sophisticated bibliography-generating tools, and with far fewer citation formats, than the commercial tools.
These software packages can be hugely efficient time savers, allowing you to easily catalogue, retrieve and annotate sources as you research, and generating citations and even a complete bibliography for your project. You might, for example, have to fill in missing pieces of information like place of publication for certain records, or reformat bibliographies to match your department's requirements.
Parenthetical referencing styles are the most common scholarly styles in use, and are employed across a wide range of academic disciplines, with different formats dominant in different fields. MLA and Chicago tend to dominate in Arts and Humanities disciplines especially in North America ; APA is very common in the Social Sciences, while one of the many variants of the Harvard system can turn up in any discipline anywhere in the world! Parenthetical styles generally work on the basis of economy.
They allow the reader to quickly and easily locate a source in the reference list at the end of a work in most parenthetical referencing formats this is labelled "References" or "Works Cited" and includes only sources directly cited in the written work , with a minimal disruption of the flow of the writing in which they appear. Because of their emphasis on economy, parenthetical styles generally mandate that you include the author's name in the parenthetical reference only if it's not clear from the context.
So, if you introduce a quote with "Smith says that…" you wouldn't normally repeat Smith's name a few words later in parentheses. Most parenthetical referencing systems use an "author-date" format. The parenthetical reference includes the author's surname and the year of publication or just the year of publication if the author's name is clear from the context.
So you might see, for example;. Scholars often complain that there are "far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" Smith , p. Smith argues that "There are far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" , p. The year is always the first piece of information after the author's name in the reference list to allow you to quickly and easily match up a parenthetical reference with a bibliographic entry.
Author-date entries must always form a unique identifier for a particular source — if a scholar has been exceptionally busy in a given year and produced multiple papers that are being cited in the present written work, the convention is to refer to them, both in-text and in the reference list, using the convention a, b, etc.
Page referencing conventions can vary considerably from format to format, depending on the discipline in which a referencing style is generally used. APA, for example, is designed for use in Social Sciences contexts and doesn't have a straightforward built-in mechanism for specifying page numbers, since it is expected that the vast majority of the time it will be used to reference paraphrases and summaries rather than direct quotations.
When using APA to provide direct page number references it is recommended that the author and date be included when introducing the citation and the page reference be provided in a separate parenthetical note at the end of the citation;. Smith argues that "There are far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" p. Harvard deserves a special mention among author-date systems: Whereas referencing styles like Chicago and MLA form part of detailed style guides that provide explicit rules on many aspects of scholarly writing not just referencing , Harvard simply defines the types of information that should be included in a reference and some broad principles about formatting.
There are almost as many variations of the Harvard system as there are institutions and publications that use it, and though the variations are generally pretty minor they include things like the following:.
Confusingly, you very often won't find universities acknowledging these differences; go to almost any university library's guide to referencing and it will claim to be offering an authoritative guide to the Harvard System, not one variation among many — it's up to you to identify where other referencing guides or software don't agree.
You need to pay particularly close attention to this if you're using reference management software to keep track of your sources and generate your bibliography.
If you set it to output a reference list in "Harvard" you can be almost certain that your list won't quite match the format your university expects and you'll have to do some manual formatting to get it right. MLA is something of a special case among parenthetical referencing systems as it doesn't use dates to identify works.
It aims to be even more economical than author-date systems by identifying sources by author's name only and using minimal punctuation in the parenthetical reference, for example Scholars often complain that there are "far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" Smith 6.
In the event that a written work contains more than one work by a single author, that work is identified by the shortest possible reference to its title, for example;. Scholars often complain that there are "far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" Smith, Scholar's 6. Scholars often complain that there are "far too many referencing styles for the young scholar to keep track of" Smith , 6.
Footnote referencing styles are most common in Arts and Humanities subjects especially in the UK and Commonwealth countries , where direct quotation of sources — often at length — is commonplace and footnoting is also frequently used as a means of adding additional quotations, context, or clarifying comments.
Footnote referencing styles almost always include page numbers when available the exception being "classic" literary texts that exist in a multitude of editions and are more usually referenced by chapter, line, scene, or stanza number as appropriate. This referencing style works on the assumption that readers may want to go and find the source of specific quotations as they read, possibly to establish the context or to better understand the theory or argument behind the quotation.
It's not uncommon in a heavily referenced book or journal article to see footnotes containing bibliographic references and other material take up half a page or more! A number in superscript font or, more rarely, parentheses, especially for work published online at the end of a quotation or assertion indicates that the text is supplemented by a note. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system.
It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight. The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts.
The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide. The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources.
Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. A suggested format is to include the author of the information this may be an individual, group or organisation , the date the page was put on the internet most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page , the title, the http: A format for referencing web pages is given below.
Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:.
Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.
If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency.
Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same. Footnote or endnote markers , usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text.
This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above. Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system.
National Westminster Bank plc. The reference to 'p. If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used. Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector.
In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text.
If you are unsure about how to use footnotes or endnotes in your work, consult your departmental guidelines or personal tutor.
Entries in the reference list are in alphabetical order by author names and must be in agreement to the in-text citations. There are many varieties of Harvard referencing system. It is also referred to as the 'Snooks manual', because the 6th edition was prepared by the consultants Snooks and Co.
Referencing, or citing, is an essential component of academic writing, as it acknowledges the sources of information you have used to complete your assignments. You are required to reference any information, ideas or data that are not your own, including when you have:. Search this Guide Search guides. Harvard Referencing Style A general guide to Harvard referencing style.
Guide: How to cite a Dissertation in Harvard style. Cite A Dissertation in Harvard style. Cite in Harvard. Ads keep us free. Upgrade to remove. Use the following template to cite a dissertation using the Harvard citation style. For help with other source types, like .
Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university. Citing a thesis or dissertation from a database Structure: Last, F.M. (Date published). Title (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).
All supporters will be given access to a special members area, allowing references to be saved for longer. Automatically cite a Dissertation in APA, Chicago, Harvard, or MLA style format. Instant and free! Create your citations, reference lists and bibliographies automatically using the APA, MLA, Chicago, or .
I ain't fattening frogs for snakes: An inquiry into the application of creativity research to teaching practice (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (Accession Order No. AAT ) APA citation format for a published MA thesis: Author. (year). Title in italics (Master's thesis). The format here should be used to cite an unpublished thesis. Note the title of the unpublished thesis is not italicised and is placed in quotation marks. Use the format for books if citing a published thesis.