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How to Write Footnotes

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❶Whatever content your footnote will include, however, it's probably the last thing to do in the writing of a text.

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Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition
Footnotes vs. Endnotes

Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard, Example Book New York: Scholastic, , You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.

John Smith, Example Book , trans. Random House, , John Smith, Example Book , ed. Tim Thomas New York: Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual. When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them.

Below are different templates:. John Smith, vol 2. Appleton, , Work from to Present , ed. When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore, simply exclude the page numbers from the footnote. Or maybe even a block quote. Each of these things will necessitate a specific variation of the MLA style be followed. Each and every source utilized in your paper must appear in the bibliography — no exceptions. MLA Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased.

They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited , References , or Bibliography section. What is a footnote: They are used to offer commentary or cite references on a specific part of text in the body of the paper. For example, should an author wish to include an interesting fact or comment about one of the statements made in the paper, but that comment is seemingly irrelevant to the argument being presented, they may choose to include that information in a footnote.

In this scenario, they would embed a symbol as a placeholder for the footnote at the end of the sentence being commented on and reprint the symbol and their commentary in the footnote. The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.

If you are still using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e. To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs. When mentioning a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made.

The process for including Footnotes or Endnotes in fairly consistent for most types of texts, however, what about including footnotes on virtual media like websites and blogs? Technology is ever changing, and as such, the process for standardizing citation on websites has not yet been formalized. However, many thought leaders believe that the inclusion of website footnotes will not only lend credibility to the site, but also allow readers to utilize originating sources in order to gather additional information.

Creating a website footnote is not difficult. Only one sentence is used in a Footnote or Endnote citation, i. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentences, hence each entry requires a minimum of three periods, e.

Gibaldi does NOT recommend the use of these old-fashioned abbreviations: For Footnote or Endnote citations, if you should see the term ibid.

More commonly, author and page number or numbers are now used instead of ibid. For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, where previously op.

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The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.

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Information on how to write footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes, a type of citation format, are most often used for history and philosophy papers. Footnotes, a type of citation format, are most often used for history and philosophy papers.

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Many students or scholars use footnotes to document sources. The most common methods used to notate sources are endnotes and footnotes. Endnotes, as their name suggests, are placed at the end of the document, on a new page. Footnotes, however, appear at the bottoms of pages. Footnotes can be added quickly and easily using Microsoft Word. Here's how to use footnotes in Microsoft Word 1. Click on the place in the text where you want the first number to appear. 2. In the References tab, there is a Footnotes group. In that group, click the button that says Insert Footnote. 3.

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Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. Footnotes are difficult for printers to format, and they can intrude on the flow of the text. The American Psychological Association no longer permits them for citing sources; instead, APA style uses in-text citations with the author’s name and the source’s date. However, you may use footnotes in .