Next, create a graphic organizer that follows this pattern, complete with focusing questions, and distribute it as a study guide. Graphic organizer templates are offered below. Instruct students to read the chapter and take notes by recording the appropriate information in the graphic organizer sections. You have stepped up and are filling a huge void with much needed information that is accessible to practitioners.
The statements and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the author s. All About Adolescent Literacy. Home About Us Contact Us. Reading and Scaffolding Expository Texts By: Roberta Sejnost and Sharon Thiese To help students comprehend expository text structures, teachers can acquaint them with the signal or cue words authors utilize in writing each of the structures and use the graphic organizers offered in this article Introduction Expository text differs greatly from narrative text in tone, style, structure, and features.
Text Structure Signal Words Cause- Effect Comparison- Contrast Definition- Example Problem- Solution Proposition- Support because consequently If so, then since therefore so that thus as a result not only, but however but on the other hand instead of as well as similar to different from compared to for example for instance specifically in addition described as to illustrate another first, second, third because since consequently so that nevertheless a solution however therefore in addition as result for example therefore first, second, third before after then finally in conclusion A final aspect of informational text is its features or those items that an author uses to organize the text.
Scaffolding strategies for expository text Readence, Bean, and Baldwin suggest a simple procedure to help students recognize, identify, and utilize text structure as a way to better comprehend and recall reading from expository text: Steps to Recognize Expository Text Structure 1. Steps for Structured Notetaking 1. References Click the "References" link above to hide these references. Teaching text structure to improve reading and writing.
The Reading Teacher, 43 2 , Reading Next — A vision for action and research in middle school and high school literacy. Alliance for Excellent Education. Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Tools, tips and techniques. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Letting go of familiar mustache monologues. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 50 4 , A new strategy for content areas. Journal of Reading 32 1 , By the way, the links for Proposition-Support don't seem to work. Please make the proposition support organizer available!
February 11, The links for Proposition-Support are still not working! Get your essay done a couple of days before the due date so that you have time to go back and revise it to make it polished. Avoid turning in a first draft that you haven't double-checked for errors. Correct errors related to grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Consult a style book if you are unsure how to properly use quotation marks, colons, semicolons, apostrophes or commas. Avoid using exclamation points. Make sure you know how to use apostrophes correctly. Look for mistakes involving general punctuation. Check for run-on sentences , commas and periods inside quotation marks, as well as sparely-used dashes, colons, and semi-colons. Remove any repetitive or unnecessary words. Vary your language with the help of a thesaurus. Also, consult a dictionary to make sure that you're using unfamiliar words correctly.
At the same time, try to keep your language short, sweet, and to the point. A thesaurus is a great tool, but don't just use big words to sound fancy.
The best essays are clear, concise, and easily understood by a wide audience. Focus on writing killer verbs for sentences. Verbs communicate the action in a sentence and drive the action. A great verb can be the difference between a bland sentence and a beautiful one. Adjectives are great descriptive words, but when used indiscriminately, they can burden an essay and make it less readable.
Try to let the verbs and nouns do most of the heavy lifting before you focus on adjectives. Avoid colloquial informal writing. Do not use contractions or abbreviations e. Your essay should have a serious tone, even if it's written in a light or lyrical style. Analyze how your essay flows. Does each sentence lead smoothly to the next? Does each paragraph flow logically to the next? Although you can analyze your essay by reading through it, it's helpful to make a reverse outline, working from your essay to outline your thoughts.
When events happen in sequence: I first started to realize that I was in the minority when I was in middle school My realization was confirmed when I proceeded to high school. If sentences elaborate on each other: Plants need water to survive A plant's ability to absorb water depends on the nutrition of the soil. When an idea contrasts with another idea: Vegetarians argue that land is unnecessarily wasted by feeding animals to be eaten as food Opponents argue that land being used for grazing would not be able to be used to create any other kind of food.
If you're relaying a cause and effect relationship: I will be the first person in my family to graduate from college I am inspired to continue my family's progress through the generations.
When connecting similar ideas: Organic food is thought to be better for the environment. Cut information that's not specifically related to your topic. You don't want your essay to ramble off-topic. Any information that doesn't directly or indirectly support your thesis should be cut out. Have someone read your paper aloud to you. Your ears are sometimes better than your eyes at picking up mistakes in language.
The essay should sound like it has a good flow and understandable words. As an alternative, you can record yourself reading it aloud and play it back. Rewrite any problematic body passages.
If needed, rearrange sentences and paragraphs into a different order. Make sure that both your conclusion and introduction match the changes that you make to the body. Compose your essay with a clear purpose. A persuasive essay is designed to sway the reader to adopt your point of view about a topic.
This means it's important that your views are expressed in a clear, concise manner, which allows the reader to understand your argument. These are good examples of persuasive essay topics you might write about: Whether governments should or should not fund embryonic stem cell research. Whether love is a virtue or a vice. Why Citizen Kane is the best movie of the 20th century. Why American citizens should be forced to vote.
Write your essay as though you are conducting a debate. When you speak in a debate, you introduce your topic, list your evidence and draw a conclusion for the people who are listening. A persuasive essay has a similar structure.
Collect facts from good sources to justify your opinions. Support your argument with reasoned facts. A well-written essay is great, but a well-argued essay is undeniable. In addition to doing research, you can perform empirical experiments including taking surveys, doing interviews or conducting experiments. Survey results or interviews could be great pieces of information to start your essay with. Tell a story about the facts. Don't just list the facts; tell a story! How would you like to be one of those wrongfully-convicted inmates?
Present the other side of your argument and use logic and facts to show why the other side's opinion is either inaccurate or not up-to-date. You're showing the reader you are unbiased and considered the other arguments, but you concluded that your argument is the best.
Time after time, evidence has disproved this theory. The death penalty, in fact, does not act as a deterrent to crime: Tie all your ideas together in a gripping conclusion. Be sure to stress your thesis, or what you are arguing for or against, one last time. Use some of the information you have discussed, or a story you've saved, to color your conclusion a little bit. Choose a subject for your essay.
You'll be investigating a topic and presenting your viewpoint about the topic based on evidence. Research papers usually fall under this category of writing. For example, you could write an expository essay arguing that embryonic stem cell research can lead to cures for spinal cord injuries and illnesses like Parkinson's or diabetes.
Expository essays differ from persuasive essays because you aren't stating an opinion. You're stating facts that you can back up with research.
Select your strategy and structure. Some common strategies and structures for expository writing include: Definition essays explain the meaning of terms or concepts. Classification essays organize a topic into groups starting with the most general group and narrowing down to more specific groups.
In this type of essay, you'll describe either the similarities and differences or both between ideas or concepts. These essays explain how topics affect each other and how they are interdependent. How-to essays explain the steps required for completing a task or a procedure with the goal of instructing the reader.
Keep your views unbiased. Expository essays aren't about opinions. They are about drawing a conclusion based on verifiable evidence. You might even find that, with new information, you'll have to revise your essay. If you started out writing about the scarcity of information regarding global warming, but came across a bunch of scientific evidence supporting global warming, you at least have to consider revising what your essay is about.
Use the facts to tell the story. The facts will tell the story itself if you let them. Think like a journalist when writing an expository essay. If you put down all the facts like a reporter, the story should tell itself. Don't mess with structure in expository essays. In narrative essays, you can twist and turn the structure to make the essay more interesting. Be sure that your structure in expository essays is very linear, making it easier to connect the dots. Tell your story vividly and accurately.
A narrative essay recounts an incident that either you or others have experienced. In a narrative essay, you could describe a personal experience in which embryonic stem cell research could have helped you or someone you love conquer a debilitating condition.
Include all of the elements of good storytelling. You'll need an introduction, setting, plot, characters, climax and conclusion. How are you going to set the story up? Is there something useful or important here that gets mentioned later on? Where the action takes place. What does it look like? Which words can you use to make the reader feel like they are there when they read it? The meat of the story, the essential action.
Why is the story worth telling? Who's in the story. What does the story tell us about the characters? What do the characters tell us about the story? The suspenseful bit before anything is resolved. Are we left hanging on the edges of our seat?
Do we need to know what happens next? What does the story mean in the end? How have things, people, ideas changed now that the end is revealed? Have a clear point of view. Most narrative essays are written from the author's point of view, but you can also consider other perspectives as long as your point of view is consistent. Utilize the pronoun "I" if you are the narrator. In a narrative essay, you can use first person.
However, make sure that you don't overdo it. In all essays, you sound more authoritative if you state facts or opinions in third person. You're telling a story, but the purpose of the story is to make a specific point. Introduce your main idea in your thesis statement, and make sure that all of your story elements tie back to your thesis statement. What did you learn? How is your essay an exploration of the things that you learned? How have you changed? How is the "you" that started the essay different from the "you" now?
Related to, but different from, the "what did you learn? Choose your language carefully. You will use words to evoke emotions in your reader, so choose your words deliberately. Essay Help Essay Template. Sample Tess of the d'Urbervilles Essay. Start with a great fact, story, or compelling idea, then grow from there.
If you're stuck, many writers save their intro until the end, once they know the actual direction and evidence in the rest of the essay. Not Helpful 27 Helpful Not Helpful 18 Helpful Try to start with something intriguing and promising. Questions can be really effective for an introduction.
Not Helpful 22 Helpful It depends on what the topic is about. Normally all essays have an Introduction, paragraphs explaining the most important things about the theme about 2 or 3 , and a conclusion. Not Helpful 26 Helpful You don't have to conclude the body paragraph in any particular way. That's what the conclusion paragraph is for. Not Helpful 24 Helpful What can I do if I have to write an essay for an exam and can't do research for it? Know the topic well before hand. Though the essay question could vary widely, know the historical context of events related to the class.
You will likely be given a document, or several, to respond to, so you will have some resources available. However it is necessary to know the historical context of the event the documents talk about, so you can interpret them correctly and provide contextualization in your essay.
Contextualization is telling what led up to an event, and is often helpful to explain why things happened and understand the mindset of the time period. Not Helpful 21 Helpful Research several sides of the topic and form an opinion. Introduce the various arguments about it, both for and against your view. Summarize the concepts, and statenwhy you believe what you believe. Not Helpful 5 Helpful Unless your teacher says otherwise, use 12pt Times New Roman font and remember to double-space your essay.
Some teachers will prefer 10pt font, but still request double-spacing. Not Helpful 36 Helpful You can either tell a story about a moment in your life when you learned something valuable about yourself or just tell the story of your life from beginning to end.
Not Helpful 25 Helpful Read the proverb several times, looking at the tone, voice and intended audience. Dissect the proverb, thinking about the intended meaning, and historical context. Write everything down and arrange it inside the structure of the essay in a way that flows and makes sense to you. Not Helpful 9 Helpful How to write an essay on a theme of a novel for literature?
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Quick Summary If you need to write an essay, start by gathering information from reputable sources, like books from the library or scholarly journals online. Did this summary help you? Tips Don't rush everything, but also don't take too long to write your essay.
My class has officially started their expository writing pieces. This is very new to them, so we are taking it slowly. Thank goodness for Gretchen Bernabei!
The best collection of FREE expository writing prompts and expository essay topics!
Learn how to write an expository essay with this guide to the different types of exposition. Find tips and strategies for writing an expository article. Looking for a fun and creative way for students to learn about expository writing? In this activity, students will create the front page of a newspaper including writing a headline and a main story as well as adding other newspaper.
Expository writing's main purpose is to explain. It is a subject-oriented writing style, in which authors focus on telling you about a given topic or subject without voicing their personal opinions. In literature, writing style is the manner of expressing thought in language characteristic of an individual, period, school, or nation. Thus, style is a term that may refer, at one and the same time, to both conventions that go beyond the individual writer and to singular aspects of individual writing. Beyond the essential elements of spelling, grammar, and punctuation, writing style is the.