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Operations research

Operations Management

❶Javad Lavaei, Assistant Professor. You can help by adding to it.

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It uses various scientific research -based principles, strategies , and analytical methods including mathematical modeling , statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems.

Management scientists help businesses to achieve their goals using the scientific methods of operational research. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. Of course, the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups.

Management science is concerned with developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems, as well as designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence. The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as management science.

Some of the fields that have considerable overlap with Operations Research and Management Science include [32]:. Applications are abundant such as in airlines, manufacturing companies, service organizations , military branches, and government. The range of problems and issues to which it has contributed insights and solutions is vast. Management is also concerned with so-called 'soft-operational analysis' which concerns methods for strategic planning , strategic decision support , problem structuring methods.

In dealing with these sorts of challenges, mathematical modeling and simulation may not be appropriate or may not suffice. Therefore, during the past 30 years [ vague ] , a number of non-quantified modeling methods have been developed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Operations Research. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. West Churchman William W. Cooper Robert Dorfman Richard M. Karp Ramayya Krishnan Frederick W. Roth Peter Whittle Related fields Behavioral operations research Big data Business engineering Business process management Database normalization Engineering management Geographic information systems Industrial engineering Industrial organization Managerial economics Military simulation Project Production Management Reliability engineering Scientific management Search-based software engineering Simulation modeling System safety Wargaming.

Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 27 January Archived from the original on 27 May Sodhi, "What about the 'O' in O. History — Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Following the creation of a unified Ministry of Defence, a tri-service operational research organisation was established: Dirty Little Secrets of the Twentieth Century. Journal of the American Statistical Association. United States Naval Institute Proceedings.

Archived 14 September at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 June The University of Tennessee, Omega - International Journal of Management Science. Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 31 March The Science of Better. Retrieved 19 March Each of these requires an ability to analyze the current situation and find better solutions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manufacturing or service operations. The history of production and operation systems began around B. The next major historical application of operation systems occurred in B.

It was during this time that the Egyptians started using planning , organization , and control in large projects such as the construction of the pyramids. In large cities, on the other hand, inasmuch as many people have demands to make upon each branch of industry, one trade alone, and very often even less than a whole trade, is enough to support a man: It follows, therefore, as a matter of course, that he who devotes himself to a very highly specialized line of work is bound to do it in the best possible manner.

In the Middle Ages , kings and queens ruled over large areas of land. This hierarchical organization in which people were divided into classes based on social position and wealth became known as the feudal system.

Although a large part of labor was employed in agriculture, artisans contributed to economic output and formed guilds. The guild system, operating mainly between and , consisted of two types: Although guilds were regulated as to the quality of work performed, the resulting system was rather rigid, shoemakers , for example, were prohibited from tanning hides.

Services were also performed in the Middle Ages by servants. They provided service to the nobility for cooking, cleaning and entertainment. Court jesters were service providers. The medieval army could also be considered a service since they defended the nobility. The industrial revolution was facilitated by two elements: Division of labor has always been a feature from the beginning of civilization , the extent to which the division is carried out varied considerably depending on period and location.

Compared to the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery were characterized by a greater specialization in labor, one of the characteristics of growing European cities and trade. It was in the late eighteenth century that Eli Whitney popularized the concept of interchangeability of parts when he manufactured 10, muskets. Up to this point in the history of manufacturing, each product e. Interchangeability of parts allowed the mass production of parts independent of the final products in which they would be used.

In , Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job.

He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work.

The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems PMTS. Work sampling is used to measure the random variable associated with the time of each task. PMTS allows the use of standard predetermined tables of the smallest body movements e.

PMTS has gained substantial importance due to the fact that it can predict work measurements without observing the actual work. The Gilbreths took advantage of taking motion pictures at known time intervals while operators were performing the given task. At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented. In the U. Services were largely local in nature except for railroads and telegraph and owned by entrepreneurs and families.

The idea of the production line has been used multiple times in history prior to Henry Ford: Ransom Olds was the first to manufacture cars using the assembly line system, but Henry Ford developed the first auto assembly system where a car chassis was moved through the assembly line by a conveyor belt while workers added components to it until the car was completed.

During World War II, the growth of computing power led to further development of efficient manufacturing methods and the use of advanced mathematical and statistical tools. This was supported by the development of academic programs in industrial and systems engineering disciplines, as well as fields of operations research and management science as multi-disciplinary fields of problem solving. While systems engineering concentrated on the broad characteristics of the relationships between inputs and outputs of generic systems, operations researchers concentrated on solving specific and focused problems.

The synergy of operations research and systems engineering allowed for the realization of solving large scale and complex problems in the modern era. Recently, the development of faster and smaller computers, intelligent systems , and the World Wide Web has opened new opportunities for operations, manufacturing, production, and service systems. Before the First industrial revolution work was mainly done through two systems: In the domestic system merchants took materials to homes where artisans performed the necessary work, craft guilds on the other hand were associations of artisans which passed work from one shop to another, for example: The beginning of the industrial revolution is usually associated with 18th century English textile industry , with the invention of flying shuttle by John Kay in , the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves in , the water frame by Richard Arkwright in and the steam engine by James Watt in In at the Crystal Palace Exhibition the term American system of manufacturing was used to describe the new approach that was evolving in the United States of America which was based on two central features: The model T car was introduced in , however it was not until Ford implemented the assembly line concept, that his vision of making a popular car affordable by every middle-class American citizen would be realized.

The first factory in which Henry Ford used the concept of the assembly line was Highland Park , he characterized the system as follows:. That is the real principle of our production, and conveyors are only one of many means to an end" [9]. This became one the central ideas that led to mass production , one of the main elements of the Second Industrial Revolution , along with emergence of the electrical industry and petroleum industry.

The post-industrial economy was noted in by Daniel Bell. Since all sectors are highly interconnected, this did not reflect less importance for manufacturing, agriculture, and mining but just a shift in the type of economic activity. Although productivity benefited considerably from technological inventions and division of labor, the problem of systematic measurement of performances and the calculation of these by the use of formulas remained somewhat unexplored until Frederick Taylor, whose early work focused on developing what he called a "differential piece-rate system" [11] and a series of experiments, measurements and formulas dealing with cutting metals [12] and manual labor.

One of the problems Taylor believed could be solved with this system, was the problem of soldiering: In Taylor published his "The Principles of Scientific Management", [14] in which he characterized scientific management also known as Taylorism as:.

Taylor is also credited for developing stopwatch time study, this combined with Frank and Lillian Gilbreth motion study gave way to time and motion study which is centered on the concepts of standard method and standard time.

Frank Gilbreth is also responsible for introducing the flow process chart in Also in Hugo Diemer published the first industrial engineering book: Factory Organization and Administration. In Ford Whitman Harris published his "How many parts to make at once" in which he presented the idea of the economic order quantity model. He described the problem as follows:.

Experience has shown one manager a way to determine the economical size of lots" [16]. This paper inspired a large body of mathematical literature focusing on the problem of production planning and inventory control. In Walter Shewhart introduced the control chart through a technical memorandum while working at Bell Labs , central to his method was the distinction between common cause and special cause of variation.

In the s methods-time measurement MTM was developed by H. MTM was the first of a series of predetermined motion time systems , predetermined in the sense that estimates of time are not determined in loco but are derived from an industry standard.

This was explained by its originators in a book they published in called "Method-Time Measurement". Up to this point in history, optimization techniques were known for a very long time, from the simple methods employed by F.

Harris to the more elaborate techniques of the calculus of variations developed by Euler in or the multipliers employed by Lagrange in , and computers were slowly being developed, first as analog computers by Sir William Thomson and James Thomson moving to the eletromechanical computers of Konrad Zuse and During World War II however, the development of mathematical optimization went through a major boost with the development of the Colossus computer , the first electronic digital computer that was all programmable, and the possibility to computationally solve large linear programming problems, first by Kantorovich [20] in working for the Soviet government and latter on in with the simplex method of Dantzig.

These methods are known today as belonging to the field of operations research. From this point on a curious development took place: Toyota evolved a unique manufacturing system centered on two complementary notions: Meanwhile, in the sixties, a different approach was developed by George W. Plossl and Oliver W. One of the key insights of this management system was the distinction between dependent demand and independent demand. Independent demand is demand which originates outside of the production system, therefore not directly controllable, and dependent demand is demand for components of final products, therefore subject to being directly controllable by management through the bill of materials , via product design.

Orlicky wrote "Materials Requirement Planning" in , [26] the first hard cover book on the subject. Enterprise resource planning ERP is the modern software architecture, which addresses, besides production operations, distribution , accounting , human resources and procurement. Dramatic changes were occurring in the service industries, as well. Beginning in McDonald's provided one of the first innovations in service operations.

A behavioral investigation in the medical device industry. Research article Abstract only Worth the wait? How restaurant waiting time influences customer behavior and revenue. More articles in press. Pedraza-Martinez , Luk N. View all special issues. More about the journal.

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Operations Management Research: Advancing Practice through Theory publishes short, focused research studies that advance the theory and practice of operations management. OMR is a rigorous, double-blind peer-reviewed journal that is oriented toward fast reviews and publication of high-quality research that makes a clear contribution to the science and practice of operations management in .

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In addition, operations management is not only concerned with the operations within the single organizational entity, but also of the smooth and efficient operations of the entire supply chain. This is the network of organizations involved in the production, delivery, and sale of a product.

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Operations Management Research: Advancing Practice through Theory publishes short, focused research studies that advance the theory and practice of operations management. OMR is a rigorous, double-blind peer-reviewed journal that is oriented toward fast reviews and publication of high-quality research that makes a clear contribution to the. The mission of Journal of Operations Management (JOM) is to publish original, empirical operations management research that demonstrates both academic and practical relevance. Academic relevance means the research contributes to on-going academic discussions and debates on relevant topics in operations management.

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Operations Management Research | Read articles with impact on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. Operations research concerns the application of quantitative methods to solve operations problems. In particular, the cluster performs research on the development of new methods and on the application of methods in the following areas (among others).