To have trustworthy results and to avoid misconduct, researchers should use optimal study designs and follow ethical standards. Scientific misconduct can be unintentional and intentional. The former is usually due to inappropriate use of research methodology, while the latter is a frank dishonesty and violation of ethical standards intellectual dishonesty.
Misconduct can take the form of legal violations. Inappropriate authorship and research manipulations can be viewed as serious ethical and legal violations, subject to punishments of respective scientific and academic institutions 1 , 3 , 17 , 18 , The worst forms of scientific misconduct and intellectual dishonesty are:. The term plagiarism stems from the Latin word plagium , meaning kidnapping a man.
Plagiarism of words and ideas can be unintentional and intentional As Miguel Roig from St. In all its forms, as Elsevier publisher edited, plagiarism constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable Plagiarism dates back to the foundation of science communication as a discipline. According to the World Association of Medical Editors WAME strict definition, plagiarism is when six consecutive words are copied 6 , 25 , 7 to 11 words are overlapping set of 30 letters Here we are reminded of the comment of Samuel Johnson, dealing with a manuscript that he sent for evaluation: Plagiarism of words can be divided into: Unfortunately, digitalization made copy-paste plagiarism and inappropriate re-use of sources from the websites, online journals, and other electronic media widespread.
There are no universal regulations on plagiarism prevention suitable for all scientific and academic institutions 1. COPE attempted to tackle the problem of plagiarism by recommending cooperation with research institutions and retraction of untrustworthy material Since then, ORI has reported a constant rise of cases of misconduct and plagiarism If plagiarism is surfaced after the publication, editors should retract the paper and inform the readership on misconduct 1.
The respective COPE flowchart is helpful in this regard. Ethical aspect of publishing is especially important for small and developing economies The participation of scientists from Bosnia and Herzegovina in the global scientific communication entails the obligation of accepting international standards cite the sources used 9.
Th is will allow avoiding accusations of self-plagiarism. It is possible to republish the data previously presented in the form of congress abstract, with a reference to the abstract. Copyright Assignement Form dowloaded from www. Cases of plagiarism have been known throughout history of mankind. It affected not only medicine, but many other disciplines. Perhaps the first reported cases of intellectual dishonesty are those from the U.
In , colleagues and supervisors discovered fabrication of the published data, mostly from the years of studentship at Emory and Harvard Universities. More than 10 primary publications and 45 abstracts were retracted as a result of the investigation Robert Slutsky worked as a radiologist in University of California. An investigation found that of its 77 publications were valid, 48 were questionable, and 12 were false 8 , In our times, plagiarism reported even among politicians and state leaders, who plagiarized during the PhD writing.
Also, this plague affected many doctorate and master theses, and regular articles in Bosnia and Herzegovina and some other countries of South Europe. An analysis of submissions to the Croatian Medical Journal revealed 28 cases of scientific misconduct Ten cases were related to duplicate publication of the same results in different journals, eight cases of multiple submissions, and five cases of plagiarism 18 , Interestingly, the first case of plagiarism in Croatia referred to one of the most productive Croatian scientists, who was accused for misconduct in a paper published 40 years ago.
An investigation substantiated the case of plagiarism by a Croatian and a British researchers, who published their work in Acta Medica Iugoslavica. The case was closed after an apology from the Croatian author, who continued producing a large number of quality papers and became one of most cited author in his scientific field. In another notorious case from Croatia, a group of undergraduate students reported that 86 pages of an American textbook were translated into Croatian and published without acknowledging primary textbook.
An investigation confirmed that the accusations of plagiarism were correct. In the former Yugoslav countries, number of plagiarism cases in textbooks, articles, monographs, scientific and professional articles is increasing. To their more intense detection helped database browser and some specially designed software for these purposes. The key reasons for the intense plagiarism is, how Serbian scientists mentioned in blogs on web sites, the lack of basic medical research, which are absent because less money is allocated for the research But, also one of the key reasons is the newly introduced Bologna principle of studies that needs many experts to be involved in the teaching process and which significantly changed the selection criteria for teachers in teaching and academic titles.
Scientists in Serbia and Croatia with petitions stood up in defense of academic dignity against those who plagiarize in their papers the other authors. And I am also among those who are copied. In the former Yugoslavia before the war in the Balkans there were indexed journals. I think that this is a serious problem that should be addressed in the international academic community, because it is not only a question of credibility disrupted scientists from former Yugoslav countries, but also journals and indexing databases which stores plagiarized articles.
This problem is difficult to solve because a large number of plagiarism has done with people involved in political decisionmaking in these countries. Letter to Editor-in-Chief of Medical Archives regarding plagiarism in published article. Academic plagiarism is more easily detected by the software as Turnitin and SafeAssign and scientific plagiarism with CrossCheck and eTBlast software.
The software consists of algorithms to detect similarities, associated databases and web sites by which it compares the article. This software packages helps to identify plagiarism but they also have flaws and still needs improvements Honesty in science is the very basis of its existence. Even a shadow of dishonesty may devalue the work and lead to the loss of respect 29 , 30 , 33 , Scientific and academic institutions should have established units for monitoring, promotion and research development.
Science should not be exempt from disclosures and sanctions due to plagiarism. Scientists from Bosnia and Herzegovina take part in the global scientific communication, and need a body to facilitate scientific research, to adopt ethical standards and guidelines.
There is a dilemma: Then, which institutions or which scientific body committee at the national or international level, when plagiarism is proven, can someone sanction and what are the sanctions. It is necessary to work on mechanisms for early detection of plagiarism, and relevant software should be used by all reputed journals.
At an international level, a database of all cases of plagiarism should be launched with disclosure of all names of blacklisted plagiarist. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Acta Inform Med v. Received Sep 15; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Ethical aspects of publishing Publications are the end-products of the scientific work, and their quantity and citability are keys to the promotion of scientists.
Quoting and CITING references Researchers rely on the published data, and have to be skilled to selectively process these data, to incorporate previous knowledge into a new paper, and to distinguish original ideas and research results from already publicized ones.
Good laboratory and scientific practice In accordance with the principles of GSP and Good Laboratory Practice GLP , scientific and academic institutions should have units for monitoring research and development of the quality. Common causes of intellectual dishonesty in science are: The definition and classification of plagiarism The term plagiarism stems from the Latin word plagium , meaning kidnapping a man. Prevention and detection of plagiarism and self-plagiarism There are no universal regulations on plagiarism prevention suitable for all scientific and academic institutions 1.
It should be also noted that plagiarism can now be detected electronically e. Open in a separate window. Examples of dishonesty in science Cases of plagiarism have been known throughout history of mankind. Conflict of interest None declared. Our paper plagiarism checker free will make a comparison between your paper and other research paper and give you results on whether or not there are any cases of plagiarism. Therefore, you can always rely on this free paper plagiarism checker when you are writing a research paper.
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The process normally takes a few seconds to complete. From the results, you will be able to see everything that has been plagiarized and which other sites are using the same content as yours. At this point, you need to reword all the areas that have been spotted as plagiarized so that you can make your paper unique. Another important paper you can check for plagiarism on our website is the IEEE paper. This type of paper is unavoidable if you are taking a course that requires a lot of research.
At some point, you will be required to write IEEE papers. You should always strive at handing in original IEEE papers because just like research papers, it is very easy to plagiarize these types of papers. This is because they require getting information from different sources to write a comprehensive and informative paper.
Luckily, you can use our plagiarism checker for IEEE papers to ensure that the paper you hand in is unique and the content cannot be found online or on any other source. There are plenty of reasons why you should always use our college paper plagiarism checker. Some of these reasons include:. Have you been looking for a reliable plagiarism checker scientific papers where you can always check to see if your papers are original?
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Google Scholar and Google Books has a large databases of past and current published materials, studies and articles that makes the software more accurate in tracking down duplicate content. Always make sure that your essay is not containing plagiarism before final submission to books-wrfd.tkon: Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London, WC2H 9JQ, UK.
Our journal (Journal of Mountain Science) will first check the plagiarism of a manuscript by using ITHENTICATE after it is submitted. This crosschecking system will compare the similarity of the present paper with the millions of papers previously published and articles in the internet (usually by google), and provide a separate similarity index with one .
If there is plagiarism, TurnItIn will identify it. Editors of some scientific journals now use a program called Cross Check powered by books-wrfd.tk Steven Shafer is the editor of the research journal Anesthesia & Analgesia. Plagiarism Checker for research Papers. We can’t check the plagiarism for research papers with any Plagiarism checker. Best plagiarism checker for research paper are according to the Journal in which we are going to publish our research paper. Best is reach out the Journal in which you are planning to publish your research paper.
Plagiarism detection The peer-review process is at the heart of scientific publishing. As part of Elsevier's commitment to protecting the integrity of the scholarly record, Elsevier feels a strong obligation to support the scientific community in all aspects of research and publishing ethics. Sep 15, · Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent.