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Short and Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System

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Long Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise

Overview Exercise has multiple short-term and long-term effects on your cardiovascular system. Heart Short-term aerobic exercise such as running for 30 minutes will not increase the size of your heart muscle, nor will it thicken the walls of your heart. Blood Vessels When you take one aerobic class, the blood vessels going to your working skeletal muscles increase in size, or dilate so more blood can flow to these muscles.

Natural Ways to Increase Blood Circulation. Initial Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Exercise. The Effect of Diet on the Circulatory System. The Effects of Exercises on the Circulatory System. The 4 Parts of the Cardiovascular System.

The Effects of Pregnancy on the Cardiovascular System. Chemoreceptors in the Cardiovascular System. Foods That Stimulate the Vascular System. Foods for the Circulatory System. The body's ability to deliver oxygen to your heart, lungs and other muscles and the efficiency with which those receiving muscles use that oxygen is called maximum oxygen uptake. Your maximum oxygen uptake increases as you continue to work out and improve your cardiovascular fitness.

The fastest and most effective way to increase your maximum oxygen uptake is to do interval training. Interval training can be as simple as increasing your speed or intensity for one out of every five minutes, and can be incorporated into any type of cardiovascular exercise that you are doing. You can also get cardio benefit from resistance training with free weights or gym machines.

To maintain an elevated heart rate, thus working your cardiovascular system, during your weight circuit, you should have very short rest periods between your weight set. If you are using free weights, move seamlessly from one move to the next, and if you are using weight machines at the gym, stop and do jumping jacks between machines, or while waiting for your turn.

Ari Reid has a bachelor's degree in biology behavior and a master's in wildlife ecology. When Reid is not training to run marathons, she is operating a non-profit animal rescue organization.

Reid has been writing web content for science, health and fitness blogs since What Happens When a Person's Cardiorespiratory Short Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise During and immediately following cardio exercise, your heart rate is elevated and your blood is pumping faster.

Long Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise As you breathe deeper while working out, your blood vessels widen so oxygen can be transported through your body with greater efficiency. Swimming Swimming is a low impact exercise that is easy on your joints and great for your cardiovascular system.

Cycling Biking is great for your heart no matter the intensity, and is helpful for people of all ages and abilities. Rowing Rowing may be the most strenuous for those who are new to it; however, the long term effects are well worth it. As such, marathons require a much stronger mentality and fitness than any other endurance and aerobic sports. However, if middle-aged people participate in this strenuous exercise, cardiovascular risks or rupture of coronary artery plaques may be increased, which is a sudden death risk Burke et al.

Looking at the cause of sudden death resulting from exercise, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or ischemic cardiovascular disease were reported Marijon et al.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by electrocardiogram, which shows left ventricular hypertrophy Maron and Pelliccia, Acquisition of this disease is very rare, and the cause of sudden death found in middle-aged people is coronary artery disease.

The risk of unexpected death due to strenuous exercises is 5 to 7 times higher than moderate-intensity exercise Noakes, In the study by Claessens et al. It is also reported that the expression of electrocardiography and echocardiography would particularly raise the risk of sudden death. Therefore, it is thought that it is important for subjects in their middle ages who participate in high-intensity exercise to receive periodic exercise stress tests in order to identify their risk degree of cardiovascular diseases.

However, these factors have been mostly evaluated in young elite athletes in Korea, and studies conducted on middle-aged people are very insufficient. In addition, with regard to the study method, it was not the value divided by body mass index BMI but the absolute values presented that led to errors in the result values.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze cardiovascular factors in middle-aged subjects who have been joining marathons for a long time in order to investigate the positive and negative factors of strenuous exercises.

Subjects were all healthy volunteers who had marathon exercise experiences for 5 yr or more with a frequency of 3 times a week, 1 hr and 30 min of exercise time, and 13—15 of RPE ratings of perceives exertion as the exercise intensity.

People who had cardiovascular diseases and other diseases that might affect the heart were excluded from this study. The general characteristics of subjects are described in Table 1. In this study, body compositions weight, body fat percentage, and BMI and echocardiography cardiac structure and function were measured and analyzed. Subjects were measured while wearing simple clothing without metals, such as earrings, rings, etc.

The treadmill exercise stress test Q, Quinton Instruments Co. The subjects were asked to finish meals 5 hr before the test, and the test was performed after they rested for 30 min after they arrived at the laboratory.

The maximum exercise duration ED was set as the time heart rate does not increase anymore and by 17 or more in the Borg Scale. The resting heart rate and blood pressure during exercise were measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Through the exercise stress test, maximal oxygen uptake VO 2 max , myocardial oxygen uptake, and the maximal exercise time were recorded.

Effects of marathon on cardiovascular factors were analyzed Table 2. In terms of differences of resting systolic blood pressure and resting diastolic blood pressure, there was no statistically significant difference. With regard to ED, no statistically significant difference was found. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cardiovascular factors in exercise stress tests, including body compositions of middle-aged people following the adaptation of marathons to investigate the positive and negative factors of strenuous exercises.

A marathon is known as a typical aerobic exercise. If an aerobic exercise is performed for a long time, it will affect the parasympathetic nerve, thus increasing stroke volume and lowering the resting heart rate, which has a positive effect on reducing cardiovascular diseases Riebe et al. In the study by Mont et al. All these results can be seen as the effects of aerobic exercise. Also a positive effect that can be expected in aerobic exercise effects is a resting blood pressure.

The mechanism in which exercises have effect on blood pressure is different depending on exercise intensity, time, and exercise types, but it is known that blood pressure is decreased due to decreased activity of sympathetic nervous system and decreased peripheral resistance Cavalcante et al. According to Chobanian et al. In this study, the resting blood pressure of all subjects was in relatively normal range, but the resting diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower than that in the control group, which indicates that there was a positive factor of the aerobic exercise effect.

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Short Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System. Many short-term effects take place during physical activity, including: Faster heart contractions. This leads to an increased heart rate and increased circulation, which gets oxygenated blood to your muscles quicker.

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Heart. Short-term aerobic exercise such as running for 30 minutes will not increase the size of your heart muscle, nor will it thicken the walls of your heart. However, long-term aerobic exercise will increase the size and thickness of your heart, especially during moderately to vigorously intense exercise.

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The minute you start training, you’ll notice more frequent muscle contraction, raised body temperature and pulse, and deeper breathing known as tidal volume. Longer-term effects occur as the body adapts to regular exercise, including your heart getting larger, bones becoming denser and the vital capacity of your breath deepening. The effects of exercise on the circulatory system. Short term effects During exercise the heart rate increases rapidly. This provides the muscles with the necessary oxygen and nutrients to provide the muscles with energy. During exercise, cardiac output is increased. Cardiac output = stroke volume x .

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Start studying Short and long term effects of exercise. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Short Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise During and immediately following cardio exercise, your heart rate is elevated and your blood is pumping faster. This invigorating feeling, coupled with the release of endorphins, or "feel good hormones," leaves you on a workout high after completing aerobic activity.